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Research by Kerry A. Shirts
From the start, the critics of the Book of Abraham had a serious contention they felt devastated Joseph Smith's interpretation of the Lion Couch, Facsimile 1 in the Book of Abraham. With an "indignant snort" they proclaimed this is not Abraham on the lion-couch. It is, rather, "the pagan god Osiris."1 Furthermore, "It should be noted that the name of Abram or Abraham is not contained in any of these translations because there is no mention of the Biblical personage anywhere in the entire Egyptian text."2 In fact, it was claimed with an almost impeccible authority that the name in the hieroglyphs was Hor, the ancient owner of the papyri and that "the name of Hor... is written twice on this fragment. It tells of the man named Hor, and so who can claim that that's Abraham when the name is right there?"3 So in other words, Joseph Smith is simply out to lunch on this claiming this has anything to do with Abraham at all, with both the papyri or the Facsimiles. It doesn't. It is rather, as other critics note, stunning that Abraham is connected with Pagans, and their books, like the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Book of Breathings, etc., if we are to accept what Joseph Smith has told us.4 That "pagan Book of Breathings" has nothing to do with Abraham and even dates to the wrong time!5 Everyone by now ought to realize that hypocephali (like Facsimile #2, the round disc-diagram in the Book of Abraham) did not exist in Abraham's day! That Abraham used something like this is preposterous, as the argument goes.6 The "Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry" explain that the Book of Breathings (part of the Joseph Smith papyri collection given back to the church in 1967) is "a late funerary text that grew out of the earlier and more complex Book of the Dead. This particular scroll was prepared (as determined by handwriting, spelling, and content, etc.,) sometime during the late Ptolemaic or early Roman period (circa 50 B.C. to A.D. 59)."7 James Walker of the "Watchman Expositor" says "It has been proven that the Book of Abraham collection is nothing more than a common collection of Egyptian funeral documents that are based on *pagan* myths related to Egyptian idolatry..."8 And they have a point... that is, until we begin to look at the evidence ourselves. Updating with recent scholarship and new archaeological finds is *not* what critics are known for. We, apparently have to do their homework for them. Again, Dr. Lythgoe was absolutely certain that Joseph Smith was wrong about Abraham being on the Lion Couch, because, obviously, to any Egyptologist, the reclining figure "was merely the usual scene of the mummy upon its bier."9 And make no mistake about it, this reclining figure *is* Osiris, according to an expert Egyptologist.10 So, summarizing three major arguments of critics:
1. Neither the Sen-sen, Book of Breathings papyri, nor the Book of the Dead Papyri in the Joseph Smith Papyri collection mention Abraham let alone have anything to do with him.
2. The Lion-Couch scene in Facsimile #1 is not Abraham, rather it is the pagan god Osiris, the DEAD god being embalmed.
3. The Joseph Smith Papyri date way later than Abraham, in fact up to 50 B.C. - A.D. 50, right into Christian times.
All three arguments have been advanced as devastating to the interpretations of Joseph Smith.
New developments are afoot that are ignored by critics concerning just these three items and areas of research, namely, the serious historical connection of Abraham with the Egyptian writings; the very distinct idea that Abraham is Osiris; the main body of Abraham Literature is dated from 100 B.C. on into Christian centuries and is precisely based on the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, which is tied into the New Testament idea of the Bosom of Abraham! It is rather remarkable to see how neatly the critics' arguments have been refuted.
First, it is very important to read carefully what Egyptologists have already said in their studies of the Joseph Smith Papyri. John Wilson, in his study, noted that Ta-shere-Min of the Joseph Smith Papyri, is simply called "Osiris" in the papyri. His words are most interesting and have been completely overlooked. "She is simply called 'the Osiris,' that is, in death she has become undying, like the god of the dead."11 What does this mean for us? Everything! Klaus Baer put it this way: "The title Osiris is given to the deceased in all mortuary texts after about 2200 B.C.... He was the dead and resurrected god... with whom every king of Egypt became identified when he died... By 2200 B.C. private individuals had begun to claim the privaledges of the royal hereafter. The deceased person who had been 'justified' in the judgment of the dead and lives again in a blessed existence in the Netherworld is like Osiris and therefore, accounting to the Egyptian way of thought *is* Osiris. The fact that Osiris NN can appear in a scene together with Osiris bothered the Egyptians no more than the occasional representation of Pharaoh worshipping his deified self."12
Here we have one of the Egyptologists who is usually used against the Joseph Smith Papyri, proclaiming that the person, whoever it is, usually called "Osiris NN" *IS* Osiris! That person takes on the gods attributes and actually becomes the god! So the one argument that the man on the lion couch cannot be Abraham *because* he is Osiris, that is, someone else, is all wrong. The man on the lion-couch can be Abraham *and* Osiris! It isn't an either/or situation as critics have tried to set it up to be. Joseph Smith is not incorrect, according to the ancient Egyptian parlance, to claim that the man is Abraham on that lion couch at all.
But we can go even further than this. The one source that critics as well as Mormons usually ignore all together in their research is the most interesting in this respect as well as others. Roy Bowen Ward has noted something especially phenomenal considering how our critics are arguing. He notes that in Luke 16:19-31, where Lazarus is taken to the bosom of Abraham, "The story itself is probably, as Gressman proposed, dependent on an Egyptian tale, which closest descendant is the Demotic tale of Satme. The ***role of Osiris in the Egyptian tradition has been replaced in the Lukan story by Abraham.***13 (My emphasis)
Interestingly, even the erudite and sophisticated Father Joseph A. Fitzmyer did not utilize this source in his magnificent study of Luke. He does, however, note some things about Abraham's bosom which are enlightening for us. Abraham's Bosom he explains,
"I.e. to a place of honor, rest, and bliss in the afterlife. This designation is unknown elsewhere in pre-Christian Jewish literature, finding its way (from here?) into late midrashim (Echa rabb. 1:85; Pesqita rabb. 43 & 108b) and the Babylonian Talmud (b. Qidd. 72 a-b). The sense of the phrase in some of these passages is disputed. (See L. Ginzberg, "Legends of Jews" vol. 5, 268). It probably represents a development of the OT idea of sleeping with one's fathers or ancestors. See 1 Kings 1:21; 2:10; 11:21; 4 Macc. 13:17). in using kalpos, "bosom," it may suggest either a place of honor for a guest at a banquet at the right of the host (See John 13:23) or an association of intimacy (John 1:18)."
He comments on the idea in verse 23 that "...Hades is a locale distinct from "Abraham's Bosom."
(p. 1306f, Fitzmyer's "Luke") - In Luke 20:38, the expression "Indeed, he is not a God of the dead, but of the living," Fitzmyer says "The argument: Only living people can have a God, and therefore, Yahweh's promise to the patriarchs that he is/will be their God requires that he maintain them in life.
for to him they are alive, this phrase "...is peculiarly Lucan and undoubtedly alludes to 4 Macc. 7:19, pisteuontes hoti theo ouk apothneskousin, hosper oude hoi patriarcai hemon Abraam kai Isaak kai Iakob, alla zosin to theo, "they (i.e. the martyrs who imitate Eleazer, son of Aaron, in the pursuit of piety) believe that unto God they die not, just as not even our patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but they line unto God." See also 4 Macc. 16:25. This is clearly an expression of the immortality of the patriarchs."14 (Cf. D&C 132:30-34, 49)
Most commentators agree essentially with this idea of Abraham's bosom. Thayer's old Lexicon notes that this means to be a partaker in the same blessedness as Abraham in Paradise, or to "be borne away to the enjoyment of the same felicity with Abraham," and even the Rabbinic idea of his bosom means "to designate bliss in paradise."15
Vine's Dictionary notes merely that "figuratively, it is used of a place of blessedness with another, as with Abraham in Paradise."16 While Zodhiates says "into Abraham's bosom means an intimate communion with Abraham as the father of faith."17 John P. Meier explains that the bosom of Abraham is "a metaphor for a place of comfort within the abode of the dead." This, he continues informing us, "obviously connotes intimacy...the Jewish roots of the image might also include the OT references to a dying person 'going to' his fathers or being 'gathered to' his kindred (e.g. Gen 15:15; 49:33).18 In his KJV Bible, Zodhiates notes that in the afterlife, "Consequent to Christ's resurrection the believers go to be with Christ" (2 Cor. 5:8; Phil. 1:23). He also references to Mt. 11:23; 16:18; Lk 10:15; 16:23; 1 Cor. 15:15; Rev. 1:18; 6:8; 20:13, 14.19 And in this we have a rather complete parallel here with the Egyptian materials as well as the idea behind the Book of Abraham. As in the Egyptian Field of Offerings and Rest, the Egyptian dead were to meet Osiris, the dead and resurrecting Christ of the ancient Egyptian religion, nay become an Osiris (!), so too, in the Paradise of Abraham, the prefiguring or rather the correlation with being in the bosom of Christ is complete for the Christian thinker, with their own idea of Abraham's bosom, correlating with being with Christ in the bosom of Paradise during death, which model was taken after the Egyptian Book of the Dead, where Abraham takes over the function of Osiris, i.e., Christ! The parallel is simply staggering. We also note as an aside, that the Pearl of Great Price Book of Moses has "Thou hast taken Zion to thine own bosom..." (Moses 7:31.) Note how this ties in well with verse 21 where we read that Zion "was taken up into heaven. And the Lord said unto Enoch: Behold mine abode forever."
The critics's argument is outdated and of no use.
John Wilson says of the papyri in the church's possession "...are of late times. That clearly means after 500 B.C., and for Document B after 300 B.C."20 Klaus Baer noted that Papyri Joseph Smith II, V-IX and most of IV dates to "the second half of the Ptolemaic Period, perhaps around 100 B.C." Papyri J.S. I, X-XI "The handwriting is of the late Prolemaic or early Roman Period, about the time of Christ."21 Now this is most fortunate for the Book of Abraham, not a disaster. The dating tells it all. What is it that makes the Book of Breathings so important? It gathers all the old information together from millenia before and binds it together into the Christian era for use. "Elements taken from the Pyramid Texts, the Book of the Dead, along with phrases and concepts already met with on the Steles and sarcophagi of the Middle and New Kingdoms."22 Wreszinski's study shows that phrases and concepts from the "Book of Wandering Through Eternity", as well as the Amduat, and the Book of Transformations made way into the Sensen papyrus,23 which, in turn, incorporated compilations as well as excerpts from various mortuary formulae and funerary materials, according to Hans Bonnet.24 All this Egyptian religious thought was transmitted into Jewish and Christian lore. L. Kakosy notes that classic Egyptian descriptions of heaven and hell are similar to those found in an Egyptian Christian grave of the 8th and 9th century A.D., especially close ties found in the Apocalypse of Enoch and Peter.25 Eric Hornung finds similar ideas expressed in Coptic Christian texts and the Egyptian Coffin Texts, Amduat, Book of Gates, Book of Quererts, all of which are reflected strongly in our Joseph Smith Book of Breathings!26 More interesting still, P. Barquet observed that Book of the Dead 85 (which is in between chapters 84, 86, 87, 89 of our Joseph Smith Papyri [Wilson, "The Joseph Smith Egyptian Papyri", p. 79ff] has earlier expressions found in the Coffin Texts (#307) which contains letter for letter almost the first sentence of the Gospel according to John! J.G. Griffith compares allegorical expressions in the very ancient Ramasseum Papyrus with the Christian equating of bread with flesh and baptism with resurrection. Sigfried Schott compares this text (which is close to our Book of Breathings) with the Christian sacraments.27
The phenominally interesting thing to note is that Joseph Smith in equating Abraham with Osiris, and involving Abraham with pagans, he hits the nail right on the head! The Abraham literature definitely places the Patriarch of the Faithful right in the middle of BOTH the ancient pagan Egyptian influences, as well as later Christian influences, with heavy rumblings of Jewish influences reverbating throughout. The synthesis is deliberately noted in the symposium of scholars who gathered in 1976 to study just this phenomenon, with special emphasis on the Testament of Abraham, an ancient work displaying affinities and collaborations with Greek, Iranian, Arabic, Ethiopic, Jewish, Christian as well as EGYPTIAN influences and religious philosophical concepts.
The Testament of Abraham's weighing the souls scene as well as having recording angels giving the results "suggested an Egyptian provenance for the writing."28 In other words, the life of Abraham intermingles drastically with Egyptian philosophy, religion, ethics, and history. Exactly what we would expect from our Book of Abraham and we certainly are not disappointed! The judgment scenes in the Abrahamic literature was studied by Francis Schmidt who noted that The Book of the Dead of Pamonthes (A.D. 63 - Note the date! Joseph Smith Papyri dates from the same time period) as well as The Tale of Satni-Khamois (A.D. 50-100 - Note the date. Joseph Smith Papyri dates from the same time period) are the two tales that are the BASIS of the Testament of Abraham.29 The Testament of Abraham (which parallels Joseph Smith's Abraham remarkably, nay unbelievably) draws on the ***Egyptian Book of the Dead.*** This used to be an argument against the Book of Abraham, but now we see that to be genuine, it has to draw on the Book of the Dead, which Joseph Smith's certainly has ties to all over the place as noted by Wilson, Bear, Parker, and hosts and hosts and hosts of anti-Mormon critics, whom I have quoted below. In point of fact, the astonishing thing is that Schmidt found "Like OSIRIS [note this!] Abel presides over judgment, seated on a glorious throne. [remember, Abraham's bosom? It having an exact contact with Osiris and Egyptian sources? Lazarus is taken into Abraham's bosom, which is the field of Paradise [Cf. Joseph Smith Papyrus Photo 8 in John Wilson, "The Joseph Smith Egyptian Papyri," p. 83 which is called "the field of Paradise" (!) which is considered a happy area, with folks sowing seeds and farming, and this is called by Wilson, "being introduced into the presence of Osiris." (p. 83). In the Testament of Abraham, Abraham is a farmer with his cattle as well, and sowing seeds, and his bosom is considered the "garden (paradise)... where there is no toil, no sadness, no sighing, but peace and joy and endless life."30 The two are exactly the same thing. From TofAbr., a field of happiness. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, [Joseph Smith Papyri], a field of happiness, and the Christian idea of Abraham's bosom is a field of peace and rest, recalling Luke 16:19-31, they are all the same thing. We are told explicitly, "To sit in Abraham's bosom in Talmudic language, was to enter Paradise."31 We have such a "field of paradise" in Christian literature, Abrahamic Literature, and ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead literature, which is all but demanded according to the circumstances involving the Joseph Smith Papyri. Chapter 103 in the Book of the Dead says "This is Hotep who walks throughout this field of his; he partakes of a meal in the birth-place of the god. If he rest in Qenqenet, he will do everything in it as it is done in the Island of Fire; there is no shouting in it, there is nothing evil in it...I am content in the City of God...I give abundance to the souls and spirits..."32 In the Theban Rescension we read "N worships the Ennead which is in the Field of Offerings...I have come in peace to your fields in order to receive the provisions which you give...A boon which the King grants to Osiris, and the Ennead which is in the field of Offerings, that they may give invocation-offerings of bread and beer [note the Sacrament motif here], oxen and fowl and all things good..."33
The Egyptian confirmation of the judgment scene in the Testament of Abraham is electrifying considering the Joseph Smith Papyri and the facsimiles we have.
-Like Osiris, Abel presides over the judgment.
-Both were the victims of the jealousy of their brother [remember in J.S. BofAbr., Abraham was the victim of jealous brothers and father]
-The Recording Angels in the TofAbr. has their counterpart in Thoth, the Egyptian recorder.
-Dokiel in TofAbr has the same function as Egyptian Anubis.
-Counterbalancing of Good and Evil deeds is found in both TofAbr and Egyptian texts [I would also add J.S. BofAbr.]
Dokiel who weighs sins and righteous deeds is in reality "Sedeqiel" - "the righteousness of God." The Angel's name, in the form SATQVIEL is among the names found on an engraved gem with an image of Anubis. Thus Dokiel=Sedeqiel=SATQVIEL was identified in Egypt with Anubis, the guardian of the scales.34 Abraham in J.S. Abraham always was a seeker after righteousness. Souls were weighed even before they came to this life in J.S. Abr 3. Parallels absolutely everywhere. Most interestingly of all, three major figures loom out at us. Abraham, Enoch, and Moses, and all three are put to the test. Abraham's test with Mastema is passed, and he thwarts him. "the angel of the presence delivers Moses from the satanic figure."35 But what is precisely the most interesting thing involved here is exactly what is involved with the J.S. BofA. "What was originally a traditional Jewish judgment scene has been expanded and fleshed out with the details from a comparable Egyptian piece."36 Francis Schmidt noted that Delcor claimed the Testament of Abraham "is a production of the Jewish diaspora in Egypt, more exactly of the Therapeutae, in the first century B.C. or the first century A.D.37 This is the exact provenance of the Joseph Smith Papyri which are heavily involved somehow with the Joseph Smith Book of Abraham, which is exactly how it should be. W.M. Flinders Petrie concluded his study of the pre-Christian ideas in Egyptian theology and history with the succinct observation that " Whether we look to the earlier or to the later time we see how far more modern were the Egyptian beliefs, than were the contemporary Hebrew ideas about a future life. We are the heirs of Egypt rather than of Hebraism in our Christian ideas."38 The final clincher is now Abraham has been found to be associated with lion couch scenes. "The fundamental issue is whether or not the name Abraham appears in Egyptian papyri."39 This is absolutely answered affirmatively. The other thing critics have completely misunderstood. There is nothing that forces us to assume that the Book of Abraham must have been written by Abraham in Egypt and preserved in Egyptian hands all this time. "it may have passed through the hands of Abraham's posterity and been taken to Egypt only much later, where it was translated. Hecateus of Abdera (approx. 300 B.C.) - a major source for Manetho, Diodorus Siculus, and possibly Tacitus - used Egyptian sources to revise Herodotus' account of Egyptian history. Hecateus had a positive assessment of Moses and Jews and knew of noncanonical traditions about Abraham, about which he wrote a book that is thought to have been a major source behind Josephus' account of Abraham... Sources... must date to the first century A.D.... what is so unusual about the mention of braham in third-century Egyptian papyrus or a papyrus manuscript of a nonbiblical book of Abraham dating to the end of the first century?... What the Anastasi priestly archive [the place where the Joseph Smith papyri originally came from in Egypt] shows is that Egyptian priests (in Thebes) freely borrowed from Jewish and Christian sources... a minimum historical argument from this is that the existence of a book of braham in Egypt at the time of the Joseph Smith Papyri were produced is well within the scope of reasonable scholarship."40
Thus every one of the three arguments from critics against the Book of Abraham are met with the newest research. You will not find critics even bothering with the literature you see in the footnotes here. Mostly what they do is quote each other and keep things in old grooves of the 1960's. They are out of date, refuted, and bankrupt.
1. "Wesley P. Walters, "Joseph Smith Among the Egyptians," Utah Lighthous Ministry, 1973, p. 29. Cf. Jerald and Sandra Tanner, "Fall of the Book of Abraham", pamphlet, (no date), "Egyptologists find no mention of either Abraham or his religion in this text [the Sen-sen text, which is accompanied by Facsimile #1, the lion couch with Abraham on it, which is claimed to be Osiris].
2. H. Michael Marquardt, "The Book of Abraham Papyrus Found: An Answer to Dr. Hugh Nibley's book 'The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri: An Egyptian Endowment,'" Utah Lighthous Ministry, 1975, p. 9.
3. Walter Martin, "The Maze of Mormonism," Vision House Publishers, 1978 Revised & Enlarged edition, p. 164, quoting Dee Jay Nelson, another anti-Mormon.
4. Latayne Colvett Scott, "The Mormon Mirage," Zondervan, 1979, p. 130.
5. "Ibid," p. 133.
6. "Ibid.," p. 136. The Tanners exclaim that "It was supposed to have been written on Egyptian papyrus by Abraham himself about 4,000 years ago!" in "Flaws in the Pearl of Great Price", on the website at http://www.xmission.com/~country/reason/fpgp.htm. Cf. their "Solving the Mystery of the Joseph Smith Papyri", at the same site, p. 3.
7. The "CARM", "Proof that Joseph Smith was a False Prophet", at http://www.carm.org/ldspapyr.htm, p. 2. Cf. Charles Larson, "By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus...", Institute For Religious Research, 1992, p. 62.
8. James Walker, "The Book of Abraham Translation," in "The Watchman Expositor," p. 3, at http://rampages.onramp.net/~watchman/abraham2.htm.
9. As found in R.C. Webb, "Have Joseph Smith's Interpretations Been Discredited?", in "Deseret News," Nov. 15, 1913, p. 318.
10. Klaus Baer, "The Breathing Permit of Hor," "Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought," 3(Autumn 1968), p. 118 - "Osiris (2) is represented as a man on a lion-couch." Cf. Frank Zindler, "Origins of Mormonism: The Book of Abraham," "The Reclining figure wasn't Abraham; it was Osiris being called back to life by Anubis, the god of the dead and of embalming." p. 6 at http://www.atheists.org/church/mormon.html This article was originally published in the "American Atheist Magazine," vol. 27, no.1 (January 1985). See also H. Michael Marquardt, "The Book of Abraham Revisited", 1997, p. 4, at http://www.xmission.com/!research/about/abraham.htm. Cf. Stan Larson, "Quest for the Gold Plates," Freethinker Press, 1996, pp. 95f for Thomas Stuart Ferguson asking the Egyptologist Leonard H. Lesko asbout the Facsimile and what it is, and Lesko saying "The vignette [illustration] should be related to spell 151 - the deceased  on a bier ..." Also interesting is the Egyptologist Richard Parker's comments: "This is a well known scene from the Osiris mysteries, with Anubis [3, the jackal headed god, on the left ministering to the dead Osiris  on the bier ." (Larson, p. 97).
11. John Wilson, "The Joseph Smith Egyptian Papyri," in "Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought," 3 (Autumn 1968), p. 71.
12. Klaus Baer, "The Breathing Permit of Hor," in "Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought," 3 (Autumn 1968), p. 117, footnote # 24.
13. Roy Bowen Ward, "Abraham Traditions in Early Christianity," in George W.E. Nickelsburg, Jr., ed., "Studies on the Testament of Abraham," Scholars Press, 1976, p. 177. (My Sincere thanks to John Tvedtnes of FARMS for helping me get this source.)
14. Joseph A. Fitzmyer, "The Gospel According to Luke X-XXIV," 2 vols., Doubleday & Co., 1985, Vol. 2, p. 1132: ABRAHAM'S BOSOM.
15. Joseph H. Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, Baker Book House, 21st printing, 1994, p. 354. From what is regarded as *the* standard Lexicon (Bauer, Arndt, Gingrich, and Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, (1979) Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 442) has: "...lying in Abraham's bosom (in the place of honor at the banquet in the next world." ...Furthermore, apart from the idea of eating together on the same couch, 'being in someone's bosom' denotes the closest communion (Num 11:12; Dt 13:7; 28:54, 56; 2 Km 12:3; 3 Km 17:19; Ruth 4:16): _ho wn eis ton kolpon tou patros_ who rests in the bosom of the Father J 1:18 _kolpos, ou, ho_ (found in Homer in addition to others; Greek inscriptions, extant Greek papyri, LXX (the Septuagint or, Greek OT), Philo, and Josephus).
1. bosom, breast, chest _anakeisthai en tw kolpwi tinos_ lie (at a meal) with one's head on someone's breast (see _anakeimai_ definition 2) as found in John 13:23. _en tois kolpois autou_ (_tou Abraam_ (English: *of Abraham*). In this case the Greek word _anakeimenon_ (English: *having lain down (to dine)* or *having reclined*) is to be supplied because it is understood but lacking in this instance) meaning lying in Abraham's bosom (in the place of honor at the banquet in the next world. On the plural see F. Blass, Grammatik d. ntl. Griechisch, bearbeitet v. A. Debrunner 1954, English Translation by R.W. Funk, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (1961) §141, 5; compare A.T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research, (1923), 408; Theocritus 2, 120 and below; Plutarch; Cato Min. 33. Compare also Sammelbuch griech. Urkunen aus Agypten I 1915; II 1922; III-V 1927-50 by F. Bilabel, 2034, 11 _en kolpois Abraam k. Isak k. Iacob_ (English: *in the bosoms of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob*)) Lk 16:23.). _apenechtheenai eis ton kolpon Abraam_ be carried to Abraham's bosom, as found in verse 22....
...Furthermore, apart from the idea of eating together on the same couch, 'being in someone's bosom' denotes the closest communion (compare Plutarch, Pericl. 1, 1, Demosthenes 31, 6, Cato Min. 33, 7 Ziegler variant readings: Gabinius, an _anthrwpos ek twn Pompeiou kolpwn_ (English: man from the bosom of the Pompeians); Longus, Past. 4, 36, 3; Numbers 11:12 (LXX); Deuteronomy 13:7 (LXX); 28:54, 56 (LXX); 2 Kingdoms (2 Samuel) 12:3 (LXX); 3 Kingdoms (1 Kings) 17:19 (LXX); Ruth 4:16 (LXX)): _ho wn eis ton kolpon tou patros_ who rests in the bosom of the Father, as found in John 1:18 (M-E Boismard, Revue Biblique 59, (1952):23-39). In another source. _kolpos, ou, ho_ _kolpos_ bosom, breast; roll (of a garment); bay* John 13:23 (_en tw kolpwi_) and Luke 16:23 (_en tois kolpois_): "lie at (someone's) breast" (a place of honor); cf. Luke 16:22: "brought to the _bosom_ of Abraham." The pl[ural]. (Luke 16:23) can also be translated _lap_ (BAGD s.v). John 1:18, of the Son-logos: _ho wn eis ton kolpon tou patros_, "who rests at the breast of the Father." of the _roll_ of a garment, used as a purse, Luke 6:38. Of a _bay_, Acts 27:39. R. Meyer, _TDNT_ [Theological Dictionary of the New Testament], III, 824-26; O. Hofius, "'Der in des Vaters Schoß ist, 'Joh 1,18," ZNW [Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft] 80 (1989) 163-71. (Balz, Horst, and Gerhard Schneider, eds., Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, (1991) Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 306b (brackets and underscoring mine) And another source: "Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:22) means the pouch...above the girdle made by pulling up the garment slightly. This picture is relatively seldom found in Rab[binical]. writings (SB II 226). It may refer to special care, as of a mother loving her child which she carries in the folds of her dress over her breast, or to the place of honour at table beside Abraham. When one reclined at table, one's head came approximately to the level of one's neighbor's chest (John 13:23, SB II ad loc. (Colin Brown, ed., The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, 4 vols., (1986) Grand Rapids: Zondervan, I:78 (Brackets mine)) (The full cite for the abbreviation SB is: H.L. Strack and P. Billerbeck, _Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch_, I-VI, 1926-61).
16. W.E. Vine, Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1985, pp. 74f.
17. Spiros Zodhiates, The Complete Wordstudy Dictionary: New Testament, World Bible Publishers, 1992, p. 875.
18. John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, Doubleday, 1994, 2 vols., quotes in vol. 2, pp. 823, 868.
19. Spiros Zodhiates, The Hebrew-Greek Key Study Bible, AMG Publishing, 3rd printing, 1986, p. 1261, see note.
20. John Wilson, "Ibid.," p. 70. Document B incidentally is the entire collection of papyri except the Book of Breathings. Wilson angrily notes "Their intermittent character suggests that many columns of writing are now missing, and that they probably were missing when the document was sold to the church in the 1830s. In its present state the manuscript is exasperatingly jumbled." (p. 68). This, of course, ignores Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery's description of the papyri as being "perfectly preserved," See Hugh Nibley, "The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri," Deseret Book, 1976, pp. 2f.
21. Bear, "Ibid.," p. 111.
22. G. Botti, "Il Libro del Respirare, etc." in "Journal of Egyptian Archaeology," 54 (1968), p. 223, quoted in Hugh Nibley, "What is the Book of Breathings?," in "BYU Studies," XI (Winter 1971), p. 159.
23. W. Wreszinski, "Das Buch von Durchwandern der Ewigkeit," in "Aegyptische Zeitschrift", 45 (1908), pp. 111ff.
24. Hans Bonnet, "Reallexikon der Agyptischen Religionsgeschichte," Gruyter, 1952, p. 59.
25. L. Kakosy, "Probleme der Agyptischen Jenseitsvorstellungen in der Ptolemaerund Kaiserzeit," in "Religions en Egypte Hellenistique et Romaine," 1969, pp. 59-68, as found in Hugh Nibley, "What is the Book of Breathings", p. 160.
26. Eric Hornung, "Altagyptische Hollenvorstellungen," 1968, p. 8, as found in Nibley, "Ibid.," p. 160.
27. P. Barquet, "Livre des Morts," p. 19; J.G. Griffith, "Religion en Egypte," p. 51; S. Schott, "Die Deutung der Geheimnisse des Rituals fur die Abwehr des Bosen", 1954, p. 6, as found in Nibley, "Ibid.," p. 160.
28. George W.E. Nickelsburg, "Eschatology in the Testament of Abraham - A Study of the Judgment Scenes in the Two Recensions," in "Studies on the Testament of Abraham," Scholars Press, 1976, p. 31. Cf. F.L. Cross, ed., "The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church," Oxford Univ. Press, 1966, p. 6f.
29. "Ibid.," p. 32.
30. "Ibid.," p. 177. Cf. Klaus Baer, "The Breathing Permit of Hor: A Translation of the Apparent Source of the Book of Abraham," in Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Aug. (1968), p. 120, footnote 49, wherein Baer says "The Field of Offerings was one of the abodes of the blessed dead." See also the interesting discussion of Hugh Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, Deseret Books, 1976, pp. 102f. Margaret Bunson, The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Facts on File, 1991, pp. 172f, notes the Mastabas, or burial chambers, were places of offerings and rituals. "Mastabas offered not only a safe receptacle for the corpse, but a home for the ka. Cf. John Anthony West, Serpent in the Sky, First Quest Edition, 1993, p. 83 where he notes that "...when death is regarded not (as with us) as an ultimate dissolution, but rather as a transitional (and crucial) stage of a journey, then the apparent Egyptian preoccupation with death becomes exactly the opposite of what it seems to be. It is, in fact, a preoccupation with life in the deepest possible sense."
31. J.D. Douglas, ed., "The New Bible Dictionary," Eerdman's, 1962, p. 7. Cf. Henry Snyder Gehman, ed., "The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible," Westminster Press, 1970, p. 11; John L. McKenzie, ed., "Dictionary of the Bible," Brude Publishing Co., 1965, p. 6; "Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible," Vol. 1, Abingdon Press, 1962, pp. 21f; R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, ed., "The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion," Holt, Reinhart & Winston, 1966, p. 4.
32. Raymond O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, Ed., by Carol Andrews, University of Texas Press, 2nd printing, 1993, pp. 104f.
33. Eva von Dassow, ed., The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going FOrth By Day, translated by Raymond Faulkner, Chronicle Books, 1994, p. 113.
34. Nickelsburg, "Ibid.," p. 33.
35. "Ibid.," p. 37. Enoch is the righteous scribe, pp. 50, 52, etc.
36. "Ibid.," p. 39.
37. "Ibid.," p. 65. Notice the idea of "court appearances" as well! "Ibid.," pp. 72ff.
38. W.M. Flinders Petrie, "Egyptian Beliefs in a Future Life," in "Ancient Egypt," 1914-15, page 31.
39. John Gee, "Abracadabra, Isaac, and Jacob," reviewing Ed Ashment, "Review of Books on the Book of Mormon," FARMS, Vol. 7, #1, 1995, p. 29.
40. "Ibid.," p. 74.