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--Background Journal----Personal Journal-- --History & Travel Journal Book 1-- --History & Travel Journal book 2----Family Journal-- --Journal for my Descendants--

CHAPTER 2
HISTORIC FORTS OF THE OLD WEST

The early posts of the old West were seldom solidly constructed forts as we conceive of them today. Often there were no high stockades or permanent buildings. Sometimes there was only a blockhouse or two at opposite corners of the area being inhabited. Occasionally an underground shelter was the fort. Many fortifications were constructed by traders to protect their businesses and by settlers to protect their homes.

As more and more settlers mowed west, the US Army was called upon to move with then. Occasionally the Army would occupy fortifications already constructed by early settlers. Usually the soldiers were required to build their own forts. The material used in constructing these forts varied with the geography of the surrounding countryside. In the desert, adobe was used; in forested areas, wood was the material of choice; in rocky areas, rock was used if masons were available to shape it.

During the years of western expansion, Army posts were established on the basis of anticipated use. As the Indian tribes of the East moved to new reservations in the west, the Army was called out to keep the tribes from waging war with each other. As settlers cleared new lands, the Army moved their posts to protect the fledgling settlements from hostile Indians and to protect the Indiansí lands from being encroached upon by settlers and merchants. After gold and silver were discovered, the mass migration of miners and settlers began crowding the large Indian territories. As the Indians had no place to move, war between the whites and Indians intensified. The Army was ordered to subdue the Indians and keep them on their reservations.

Reacting to the fast changing needs of the country the Army would set up a post and then abandon it when no longer needed. In order for a post to be designated a fort, however, a contingent of troops had to be permanently assigned to it.

Regardless of the life of the fort, each new outpost opened a new era in the history of the frontier, a new chapter written in courage by the soldiers, settlers, and Indian braves who fought, built, bled, and often died while creating the history of the countryís growth westward. These western forts are monuments to this heritage.

Rendezvous were used as places appointed for assembling or meeting other traders before most forts were constructed. Most of the year the Mountain Men worked alone or in small groups. But once a year they trickled out of several million empty square miles and came together for the purposes that were at once commercial, practical, fraternal, and infernal. This was the annual rendezvous--the highlight of the mountain man's year. For several weeks each summer, the mountain men met, drank, fought and lied to each other prodigiously. Wagon trains sent by the companies who supported their enterprise arrived bearing supplies and whiskey, and departed filled with tons of beaver hides. Groups of Indians also showed up to trade and watch the proceedings.

The Grand Tetons both on the Idaho and Wyoming side were among the first rendezvous sites in 1829, 1832. Other rendezvous were near Lander, Wyoming in 1829. 1830, 1838; Pinedale, Wyoming 1833, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1839 1840; Kemmerer, Wyoming 1834; Wyoming/Utah line near Burntfork in l825; On Utah/Idaho line near Thatcher and Blackfoot, Idaho in 1826, 1831; and on the Bear Lake in 1827, 1838. In 1813 John Reid started a fur trading post on the lower Boise River, but Bannock Indians wiped it out in 1814. In 1827 there was a rendezvous at Bear Lake for fur trading. In 1829 a rendezvous was held at Pierre's Hole, now known as the Teton basin, where hundreds of mountain men and fur trappers congregated. In 1830 a rendezvous with the Indians was held on the Blackfoot River, where competition in fur trading became intensely keen. Fur trappers of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, led by Kit Carson, winter on the Salmon River in l831. In 1832 Captain B.L.E. Bonneville leads the first crossing of the Rocky Mountains in covered wagons. The company reaches the Lemhi River on September 19. Rendezvous at Pierreís Hole. Battle of Pierreís Hole occurred July 18 between American fur trappers and the Grosventre Indians.

IDAHO


FORT HENRY
In 1810 Missouri Fur Company established Fort Henry, one of the first rendezvous and forts on the Snake River, near present day St. Anthony, first American trading post.

FORT LEMHI
In 1823 a battle was fought in Lemhi Valley between men of the Snake River country expedition and the Piegan Indians. In 1858 Mormon missionaries established Fort Lemhi, reclaim first land by irrigation in Idaho. In 1858 Bannock Indians attacked the Mormons at Fort Lemhi, killing two and driving the remaining back to Utah. Present day Tendoy Idaho and the birthplace of Sacahawea, on State 28 locate it.

FORT LAPWAI
Henry Harmon Spaulding establishes a Nez Perce Indian mission at Lapwai. First school in Idaho opens for Indian children at Lapwai. First White Child born in Idaho is Eliza Spaulding born at Lapwai. In 1839 Henry Spaulding starts publishing the Bible in Lapwai on the earliest printing press in the Pacific Northwest. Chief Timothy, the first native Christian leader, baptized November 17 1839. Troops were rushed to the Nez Perce Reservation in 1862, when miners were flocking into area and encroaching onto the reservation. The post was originally manned by Volunteers but replaced by Regulars in 1866. In 1884, the fort began to lose its value as a military installation; one building, now part of the Nez Perce Historical Park, remains. From Lewiston, take US 9S east of Lapwai; one mile south of town is the Indian Agency.

FORT HALL
Originally established by an American Settler, Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth, in 1834, this site becomes an emigrant landmark. Wyeth sold the post to the Hudson's Bay Company two years later. It was a key point in the overland route where the Oregon Trail splits to California and Oregon. In 1849 Fort Hall becomes a hub for trails and roads to the western parts of the United States. Over 20,000 emigrants who join the gold rush come through southeastern Idaho on the California Trail. Heavy traffic continues on the trail for many years. In 1870, the US Army put up fortifications about 25 miles northeast of the old trading post to protect stage and freight routes. In 1883, the barracks were eventually moved to Ross Fork Creek, about 25 miles northwest. The site is on US 91, approximately 12 sites north of Pocatello.

FORT BOISE:
In 1834 the Hudson Bay Company near the mouth of the Boise River erected Fort Boise. In 1854 the Snake River Indians massacred Twenty-one emigrants led by Alexander Ward in Boise Valley. This event leads to the closing of Fort Boise the next summer and Fort Hall in l856. Work began again on a new post in 1863 by a troop of Oregon Cavalry. Boise Barracks were established at Moores Creek by Major P. Lugenbeel and the US Cavalry. As wagon trains of miners and emigrants increased the next year, so did uprisings of the Snake River Shoshones. Thus, constant patrols crossed the Idaho tablelands to help keep the Indians peaceful, and to help support law officers in the mining camps. The site (renamed Boise Barracks in 1863) housed a small Cavalry force until 19l3. Since World Wear I, it has been used by the Veterans Administration; many fine buildings built in l890 remain. The oldest structure is the former officers quarters, built in 1863. The site is north of downtown Boise at 5th and Fort Streets.

FORT SHERMAN
In 1840 Father Pierre Jean de Smet begins his missionary work in Idaho. In 1842 Father Point establishes the Jesuit Coeur d' Alene Mission of the Sacred Heart near Saint Maries. The Mission moves to a site near Cataldo in 1846, and is transferred in 1877 to Desmet where it stands today. Camp Coeur d' Alene was established on a site chosen by General William T. Sherman for its beauty. In 1887, it was renamed Fort Sherman. Its three missions were to keep the peace in northern Idaho, watch the Canadian border, and protect the railroad and telegraph crews. The Canadians proved no problem, and the post was abandoned in 1900. The chapel, facing the old parade grounds still serves as church. The officer' quarters are now apartment houses. From Spokane, Washington, take US 10 east 10 miles to Coeur d' Alene, turn right to the City Park; four blocks west is the site of the fort.



UTAH

FORT FLOYD
General Albert Johnson departed for Utah from Fort Leavenworth in 1857 with 3,000 men, 6,000 Cavalry horses, 3,000 mules, and 500 wagons, arriving in Cedar Springs to establish the first Utah Army post the next year. The overland stage route from Salt Lake City to San Francisco was constructed that same year. The fort there was abandoned in 1861 when forces were moved east for the Civil War. All buildings were burned to the ground after the Army left.
Camp Floyd was never called a Fort. When it was established in 1858 by Johnson's Army, it was named Camp Floyd and kept that name until 1861 when the commander, Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke changed the name to Fort Crittenden because John B. Floyd, Secretary of War, went South and was charged with treason, although indicted for other crimes. The name Camp Floyd was reinstated for the sake of history and is now the name of the State Park, which includes the cemetery and the old stage station. On view today are an excellent replica of a stagecoach inn and a commissary building, as well as several monument markers at the site? The camp is in downtown Fairfield off State 73.


FORT DOUGLAS
One of the oldest US Army posts in Utah, Fort Douglas was built in 1862. It was a base to quell early Mormon raiding parties. Its troops also participated in operations against the Indians. From 1874 to 1876, it was almost completely rebuilt in stone. During the Spanish American War and World War I, it was a training base, and in the two World Wars it was a POW camp for enemy soldiers. The reservation featuring some excellent Victorian architecture is now used primarily by the US Army Reserve. It is at 21st Street East and 4th South, Salt Lake City Utah.


FORT DUCHESNE
In 1885 and 1886 intertribal violence erupted among the Ute Indians, requiring four companies of Infantry and two troops of Negro Cavalry to be rushed to the area. About 700 Indians confronted the troops near the present fort site, but diplomacy averted a clash. The Army relinquished the installation in 1912. The parade ground still has Army trees, and, although some buildings have been razed, many are in use. From Vernal, take US 40 southwest about 22 miles; turn south on State 88 for one-half mile. The fort is on the west bank of the Uintah River.



WYOMING


FORT BRIDGER
Built in 1842 as a trading post by James Bridger and Louis Vasquez, this site was purchased by the Mormons in 1853 It was the center of Mormon activity in their travels along the emigrant trail until they abandoned and burned the post in 1857. At the outbreak of the conflict between the Mormons and the US government in 1858, Colonel Albert S. Johnson established Fort Bridger as a military post. The post was abandoned in 1878, but was reoccupied by the military in 1880 because of the Ute uprising. The post was permanently abandoned in 1890. Fort Bridger is now being restored, with one of the barracks a museum. The post is approximately six miles south of the town of Fort Bridger on State 412.


FORT D. A. RUSSELL
One of the most beautiful posts in the West was established on this site in 1867 to protect Union Pacific Railroad crews. Named for a Civil War hero, its gradual enlargement made it the third largest installation in the US by World War II. In 1930, it was renamed for Francis E Warren, Civil War veteran and Medal of donor winner. Today the post is Warren Air Force Base. It features a museum and tours for visitors. From the Capitol in Cheyenne, take Randall Avenue west one Mile to the gate of the base.


FORT LARAMIE
Originally built in 1834 and named Fort Williamís (later Fort John), this site was the first permanent trading post set up in what is now the State of Wyoming. Most of the great Indian treaties were signed there. By the Treaty of 1868, white men were forbidden to enter the Powder River country, but prospectors made their way into the adjacent Black Hills which caused the Indians to protest by continued raids on settlements. The climax of Indian fighting came in 1876 when Generals Crook, Custer, and MacKenzie, and great Chiefs Sitting Bull, Dull Knife, Red Cloud and others wrote American history with bullets and arrows. The post was abandoned in 1890. The site is under extensive restoration. Take Interstate 25 US 87 north from Cheyenne to US 26; turn east to the town of Fort Laramie follow the marked gravel road two files to the site.


FORT MCKINNEY
General George Crook founded this post in 1876 as a supply depot, naming it Cantonment Reno. In 1877, it was redesignated Fort McKinney. Five years General Philip Sheridan made it a permanent post in anticipation of continuing wars with the Indians and several Cavalry troops were moved in. Sheridan's Indian battle never materialized, but considerable friction among cattlemen, rustlers, and farmers in 1892 and 1893 had to be settled by the Army. The post was transferred to the State of Wyoming and the Wyoming Soldiers and Sailors Home was moved there in l903. From Buffalo, you will take US 16 west for three miles to the fort.



NEVADA



FORT GENOA
Hampden S. Beattie, arriving in western Nevada in 1849, built a log house and began trading with pioneers en route to the California gold fields. When John Reese, a Mormon from Salt Lake City, put up a stockade and huts, it became known as Mormon Station. Apostle Orson Hyde, sent by Brigham Young to establish authority in the area, promptly changed the name to Fort Genoa even though there were no soldiers within many miles. The post flourished for years, but in 1872 two fires leveled several buildings. Ten years later the community was almost destroyed when tons of snow thundered down the valley. The fort has now been restored. From Carson City, take US 395 south 11 miles to Nevada 57 turn west four miles to Genoa.



MONTANA



FORT BENTON
In 1846, the American Fur Company founded a trading post, Fort Leans, on the Missouri River. Although the name as changed to Fort Benton in 1850, its function remained the same. In the 1860ís it became the northern base for river steamboats. The US Army purchased the post in 1869 to be used primarily as a forwarding point for supplies and mail to other forts. When the railroads came through, Fort Benton lost its importance. Many adobe buildings remain. Take US 87 from Great Falls, drive 41 Mlles to Fort Benton; the post is just east of the city.


FORT LOGAN
This site was named Camp Baker when it as first settled in 1869 on the Smith River. During the next summer, it was relocated 10 miles farther up the river. The post was primarily to protect nearby towns, although several commanders believed there was no real need for a military post there. In 1878, the post was renamed for Captain William Logan, who was killed in the Battle of the Big Hole. It was abandoned just two years later. From White Sulphur Springs, take US 12-west one mile past the post office; turn right onto a gravel road and drive 19 miles to reach the ranch of George Berg, which occupies the old fort buildings. Permission to visit should be requested.


FORT SHAW
In 1867, a cluster of shingled adobe buildings constructed on the Sun River became a fort. Two years later its soldiers were heavily engaged in campaigns against marauding Indians. This post reflects a later Army concept that out walls (stockades) was unimportant. The site served as an Indian school from 1890 to 1910. Today, it is a community school. From Great Falls, take US 89 west 19 miles, turn south onto State 200 to the town of Fort Shaw; the fort is a half-mile north of town.



ARIZONA



FORT APACHE
Established as Camp Ord in 1870, this post changed its name to Camp Mogollon, then Camp Thomas, during that first year. Finally the post was designated Fort Apache in February 1871 as a token of friendship with the nearby tribe. Friendship between the neighboring tribe and the soldiers was strained during the first 20 years of its existence. Troops from Fort Apache pursued and fought renegade bands of Indians led by such famous warriors as Geronimo, Matchez, Chato, and Chihuahua until the surrender of Geronimo in 1886. The fort continued in operation until l924 when it was turned over to the Bureau of Indian Affairs to be used as a school. The headquarters building is now the Post Office for the town of Fort Apache. From Globe, take US 60 northeast 66 miles; turn east on State 73 and drive about 27 miles to Fort Apache.


FORT BOWIE
It was the focal point of operation against Geronimo and the Apaches, at Apache Pass by Bowie Arizona.


FORT DEFIANCE
A garrison was established at the post in 1852 to patrol the Navajo Territory after several treaty attempts failed. Just three miles inside the eastern border, it was the first US fort within the boundary of present-day Arizona. The history of Fort Defiance shows the fitness of its name; fighting between Army soldiers and Indian braves was frequently intense. The post was abandoned in 1861 and became an Indian Agency in 1868. From Gallup, New Mexico, take US 666 north; turn west on State 264 to Navajo 7; drive past Window Rock to the Agency.


FORT GRANT
Old Camp Grant (l860-l872) was situated in an unhealthy location in the Aravaipa Canyon until a new site for the post was selected in 1872 on the southwestern slop of Graham Mountain. The soldiers of Fort Grant played a prominent role in the Apache War of the 1880's. The garrison was withdrawn in 1898, and the fort remained abandoned except for a caretaker. Since 1912, the fort has been occupied by the Arizona State Industrial School, which has modernized many of the original buildings. From Safford, go south on US 666 about 17 miles turn west on State 266 and drive 22 miles to the Arizona State Industrial School.


FORT HUACHUCA
Of more than 70 military posts constructed during pioneer days in Arizona, only Fort Huachuca remains as an active US Army installation. From its beginning as a tiny garrison to two companies in 1877 to today's world headquarters for the Armyís Strategic Communication Command, this post has been a part of a thrilling century of American history. During the 1880's it was a station in a heliograph network which used mirrors and sunlight to transmit signals across the entire southwest. Cavalry and Infantry soldiers, with their Indian scouts, pursued renegade Indians led by Geronimo during the 1880's. The Cavalry paraded as a unit for the last time at the fort in 1944. In 1967, the post became headquarters of the Strategic communications Command and Army Intelligence Center. It has an excellent museum. Fort Huachuca is located on State 90, 24 miles west of Bisbee.


HUBBELL TRADING POST
Indian trading post by Ganado Arizona.


FORT LOWELL
The Spanish established a Presidio (fortified camp} in Tucson about 1776 and remained until 1829. Mexican soldiers garrisoned the walled town until General Philip Cooke's Mormon Battalion arrived in 1846; after negotiations, the Mexicans departed. Few Yankees were on hand. In 1861 when a Confederate constitutional convention declared this section of Arizona no longer a part of the US. Tucson returned to Union control when the California Volunteers pitched camp on the east side of town a year later. In 1866, the camp was repositioned and improved; it became a major supply depot for troops in southern Arizona during many Indian actions, including the Geronimo campaign. The rebuilt officers' quarters now contain a museum. The fort is eight miles east of Tucson on Craycroft Road, south of Fort Lowell Road.


FORT VERDE
This small stone fort was built in 1865 by a group of pioneers to protect their crops from Indian raids. A detail of Arizona Volunteers manned the site (then called Camp Lincoln), and it officially became a military post a year later. Because of a lack of supplies and pay, most men soon deserted. A Company of US Army Regulars arrived a few months later. The post was moved in 1871 to higher ground a mile south, and a Yavapi Reservation was created to the North. The fort headquarters is now a museum. The town of Camp Verde is 49 miles south of Flagstaff on Interstate 17 then two miles east on State 79.


FORT WHIPPLE
Fort Whipple was established in 1864 one-mile northeast of Prescott after Camp Clark, located in the Chino Valley, was abandoned. Cavalry and Infantry soldiers stationed there participated in many Indian engagements. The post was General George Crook's District of Arizona headquarters in 1882. Centrally located in the state, the fort had a major influence on all Indian affairs in the region. The old post was condemned in 1869; all the buildings were torn down and rebuilt. New officersí quarters, built in 1904 from modern designs of architect Stanford White, were vastly different from earlier structures. The post was abandoned in 1913, and, in 1922, was taken over by a Veterans Administration Hospital. The fort is one mile east of Prescott on US 89.

SOUTH DAKOTA



FORT MEADE
Fort Meade, established in l878, was once an active Cavalry post charged with maintaining the peace with the Cheyenne Indians in the area. Much of the Wounded Knee Campaign was directed from Fort Meade and post troops were in the battle. This post lasted longer than any other Dakota installation built during the Indian Wars, continuing Cavalry operations until after 1935. Some early structures were replaced after the turn of the century, but the officers' quarters are basically unchanged since l888. In 1944, the post was ceded to the Veterans administration and is now a Veterans hospital. Fort Meade is two miles east of Sturgis on State 34.


FORT SISSETON
Since 1864, an elevated tableland known as Coteau de' Prairies has been the site of Fort Sisseton. The post was called "peacekeeper of the Dakota Kettle Lake region". First named Fort Wadsworth it was renamed in 1876 for the Indian tribe living there. Later, its main activities becomes more social than military, and, in 1888, the Army withdrew. The brick and stone buildings are still in fine condition today. Fort Sisseton is on State 10, 25 miles west of the town of Sisseton.

COLORADO



BENTíS OLD FORT
Old west fur trading post by La Junta Colorado.


FORT COLLINS
The 1st Colorado Cavalry established a small post outside Laporte in the fall of 1863. In May l864, two companies of the 11th Ohio Cavalry who named the post Camp Collins after their regimental commander, Colonel William O. Collins, replaced the coloradans. In June 1864, the camp was destroyed by flooding and relocated on higher ground. That fall the post was redesignated Fort Collins. Soon a settlement grew around the small fort where troops were assigned to guard the Overland Trail. In 1867, the post was abandoned and the lands transferred to the Interior Department. The site was thrown open to Settlement in 1872. The only remaining fort building is "Aunty Stone Cabin", which was built in 1864 as a mess room for the Fort Collins officers. A museum and the restored cabin are located in Lincoln Park, 219 Peterson Street, Fort Collins. The original site of the post is now covered by Union Pacific railroad yards, but a stone marker is located next to Power House on College Avenue, north of downtown Fort Collins.


FORT GARLAND
The post was established in 1858 with the mission of keeping watch on the nearby Indian tribes. Brevet General, the Colonel, Christopher "Kit" Carson commanded Fort Garland from l866 to 1867. Troops from Fort Garland escorted the Utes to new home in Utah, and the post was abandoned shortly thereafter in 1883. Several of the original adobe structures have been restored. From Alamosa, take US 160 approximately 25 miles; turn south on State 159. It is only a short distance to Fort Garland State Historical Monument.


FORT LOGAN
In 1887, 26 canvas tents were pitched on a site near Denver. The installation was simply called 'Post near the City of Denver" until 1889, when it was officially designated Fort Logan. General Arthur MacArthur (father of Douglas MacArthur) was post commandant from 1901 to 1902. From downtown Denver go south about eight miles on US 85 turn west on Oxford Avenue, which leads to the site.


FORT MORGAN
At the Fort Morgan Museum is located at a rural entity located on the high plains of northeastern Colorado their is the Morgan County Room, focusing on culture, industry, transportation, Union Pacific & Burlington Railroads and a county time line; Glenn Miller, Dale Douglas's, the Hillrose soda fountain and sundries, a print shop,
the old Fort Morgan C.T. Military Fort 1864-1868, Ice Age animals, and a Native American Prehistory room.

FORT LYON
This post, constructed in 1867, still displays its original storehouses and other military structures. As a US Naval Hospital (l902-1922), the installation was the site of important early medical work in psychiatry. Take US 50 east from Las Animas to County Road 183; turn right and proceed one mile to the site.


FORT VASQUEZ
One of four competitive trading posts on the South Platte River, Fort Vasquez (also called Fort Lancaster) opened about 1837. Its adobe walls served as refuge for travelers, beaver trappers and traders until its owners went bankrupt in 1840. The military used the post during the Civil War. The fort is located north of Denver, between the north and south lanes of US 85, about one mile south of Platteville.



OREGON



FORT ASTORIA
The Pacific Fur Company, which as organized, built a post, consisting of buildings and a stockade (a high protective fence of tree trunks), in 1811 by John Jacob Astor for trading. The post was sold to the British two years later and was renamed Fort George. Although returned to the US in 1818 it was still controlled by the British Hudsonís Bay Company. The post had almost disappeared by 1841, but the site is now outlined in paint, in the town of Astoria, on pavements and sidewalks around 15th and Exchange Streets. A reconstructed blockhouse and the oldest gravestone in the Pacific Northwest are in a small park at the intersection in Astoria.


FORT CLATSOP:
The first US fort in the Far West, Fort Clatsop was established by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in 1805. It had taken them 18 months to travel over 4,000 likes to the Pacific, where they waited out the cold winter of 1805 and 1806 before returning east. The local chinook, Clatsop, Cathlamet, and Tillamook Indians were both observers and participants in the fortís construction. Replica of the original post was built in 1955; the National Park Service maintains the site, with a museum, marked trails, and interpretive facilities. It is approximately three miles south of Astoria on US 101, across the Young's Bay Bridge.


FORT DALLES
A US Army detachment arrived at this site in l847 during troubles with the Cayuse Indians. Soldiers built a stockade and occupied the Methodist mission buildings. The post was unofficially called Fort Lee. In l850, two rifle companies came from Fort Vancouver to establish a supply depot known as Camp Drum. The post became Fort Dalles in 1853 and was a principal base of operations during Indian disturbances. One structure remains the former surgeons quarters erected in 1856. Since l905, the building has been maintained by the Oregon Historical Society as a Museum. It is at 15th and Garrison Streets, The Dalles Oregon.


FORT STEVENS
The fort was established during the Civil War as a defensive position at the mouth of the Columbia River. The Army started construction in 1863. She site was garrisoned and enlarged during the end of the 19th century and, during World War II, the post was used as a training base. It was finally relinquished by the military in 1947. None of the earliest structures remains, but portions of the former reservation are part of Fort Stevens State Park. It is approximately l0 miles northwest of Astoria.


FORT YAMHILL
The original fort was a blockhouse built by the early settlers of the area in 1855. The post became a US Army fort in 1856. General (then Lieutenant) Philip Sheridan built Fort Yamhill and spent much of his duty there before the Civil War, as did several other Civil War generals. His memoirs speak fondly of this northwest Oregon installation which was abandoned in 1866. Nothing remains on the original site; the blockhouse was moved to the City Park at Dayton City, 25 miles southwest of Portland.

WASHINGTON



BLOCKHOUSES ON WHIDBEY ISLAND
Indian uprisings during the winter of 1855 and 1856 caused settlers to band together to build blockhouses for the protection of their families. Several such blockhouses are located on Whidbey Island in Puget Sound. The Davis and Ebey families built four blockhouses after the murder of Colonel Isaac N. Ebey by the Haida Indians. Two of the blockhouses still remain. From Prairie Center at the Southern edge of Coupeville, take the road west one block where it dead-ends at Ebey Road. Go left one block to Cook Road; turn right one block to dead-end at Sherman Road, which leads to Sunnyside Cemetery, the location of the Davis Blockhouse. The Ebey Blockhouse is about one mile further on this same road. Permission to visit the Ebey Blockhouse should be requested.


ENGLISH CAMP
A detachment of l00 Royal Marines of the British Navy and l00 US troops were garrisoned on San Juan Island during a boundary dispute settlement in l859. Relationship among the men was amicable and they both celebrated the Queen's Birthday and the Fourth of July. Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany arbitrated the dispute, deciding for the US, and the British left in 1872. The camp is near Friday Harbor, San Juan Island; access is by ferry from Anacortes.


FORT BELLINGHAM
Originally a settler's blockhouse built on Bellingham Bay during the Indian War of 1855, the Army rushed to the area and established a fort at the site in 1856 in response to repeated appeals from the settlers of the area The US troops, Company D, 9th Infantry Division, were under the command of captain George E. Pickett, and their chief purpose was to protect the Whatcom coal mining district from Indian raids. The only remaining fort building is Pickett's home, where he lived with his Haida Indian wife. Also remaining is Washingtonís oldest brick building which was built next to the fort in 1858 as combination store, bank, and commission house for the gold rush. Pickett House is located at 910 Bancroft Street, Bellingham.


FORT BORST
This installation was built in 1855 at the junction of Chehalis and Skookumchuct Rivers as a grain storage depot during the wars with the Indians. It was a Strategic point on the Military road between Forts Vancouver and Steilacoom. The blockhouse was designed with loopholes in the upper story and slits in the floor of the second-story overhang so occupants could fire down upon attackers hiding against the wall. It is located in Fort Borst Park, near Interstate S. Centralia


FORT NISQUALLY
Built originally in 1833 by the Hudsonís Bay Company, this fort was the principal port for domestic and foreign trade on Puget Sound. Occasionally, US troops there had to be employed in Indian disputes. In 1867, the US government paid Hudsonís Bay Company $650,000 for its holdings on Puget Sound. The first site of Fort Nisqually was near Dupont, but in 1934 the ruins were moved to Fort Defiance Park, where a full-scale replica was constructed and furnished with authentic artifacts. The park entrance is at the end of pear Street, Tacoma.


FORT SIMCOE
A former commandant at West Point built this post at the Mool Mool', Indian name for a bubbling spring. It was established as a result of the Indian hostilities of 1856 Commandantís quarter's, officers' homes and a blockhouse have been restored and refurbished. Two other blockhouses and a barracks have also been reconstructed, and the Simcoe Indian Agency has an interpretive center with military and Indian exhibits. Fort Simcoe Park is 21 miles west of Toppenish on State 220


FORT SPOKANE
This post was little combat. First called Camp Spokane in 1880, it was designated a fort two years later when six companies of Infantry and Cavalry were garrisoned here. Their duties were to keep the peace between Whites and Indians and guard the Canadian border, but they performed little more than occasional police activity. The fort was used as an Indian school from 1899 until 1929. Five original structures remain. From Wilbur take US 2 east approximately 30 miles; turn north on State 25 and drive 24 miles to the fort.


FORT VANCOUVER
The Hudsonís Bay Company established a trading post on the north bank of the Columbia River (Opposite present-day Portland, Oregon} in 1824. The trading post became a military post in 1849 with the arrival of two companies of the 1st US Artillery. Their first camp was near the post and called Columbia Barracks. The following year, some quarters were constructed at the fort and other buildings required by the military were leased from the Hudsonís Bay Company. In 1853, the post as designated Fort Vancouver. The Hudsonís Hay Company maintained its position until 1860 when it was moved to Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The name of the post was changed to Vancouver Barracks in 1879. The US Army Reserve currently occupies the post, which includes a fine museum. From downtown Vancouver, take East 5th Street into the fort at the overpass with US 99.


FORT WALLA WALLA
The post was established in 1856 as a result of Indian troubles in the area. In 1858, the post moved to a new site about one and a half miles from its first location. Its troops were involved in Modoc, Sheepeater, Nez Perce, and Bannock Wars, and any other Indian encounters in the Northwest. In 1910, the post was turned over to the Veterans Administration and is now a hospital. Only the officers' quarters, along the southern edge of the old parade grounds, and the post cemetery now retains. There is a monument dedicated to 33 soldiers lost in the Battle of White Bird Canyon during the Nez Perce battles. Hospital buildings now occupy former barracks and guardhouse locations. Go south from central Walla Walla to the Veterans Administration Hospital to see the parade ground area. To get to the cemetery, return to the highway and make two right turns. The cemetery is in a city park south of {but not accessible from) the hospital.

NEW MEXICO



CANTONMENT BURGWIN}
Troops of the 1st Dragoons established a post south of Taos in 1852. With several thousand Indians in the area, the garrison was involved in many serious encounters. The cantonment (a name usually signifying only temporary quarters} is now being restored as part of an archeology history, and pollen research project. Fort Taos, drive south four miles on 64, turn left on State 3, and proceed for seven miles. Permission to visit (preferably in writing to Fort Burgwin Research Center, Taos) should be requested


FORT MARCY/POST SANTA FE
On August l0, 1846, General Stephen Kearny's forces arrived in Santa Fe to proclaim New Mexico a part of the US. Within two weeks, stonemasons were at work erecting a fort about 600 yards from the center of town. Ultimately, only cannon and powder were stored there; offices and barracks were located around the plaza. The Governor's Palace, today the oldest government building in the US, became headquarters for the Army District of New Mexico. Confederates threatened Santa Fe, but were turned back at Glorieta Pass (1863). The fort and post soon became critical in developing the New Mexico-Arizona Territories. The original site is on a bluff north of downtown Santa Fe: the remainder of the post is north of the plaza bounded by Federal, Washington Palace and Grant Streets.


FORT SELDEN
Indians camped in its shadows almost from the day a post was established at the base of the Selden Mountains in 1865. A fort there was not anything new. The Spanish had put a presidio (fortified camp) there nearly a century before, and the US Army had pitched Camp Robledo on the site in l853. The original structures, still in existence, give an impressive idea of the old fort's size. From Las Cruces, take Interstate 25 north about 17 miles, this highway meets US 85 at Fort Selden.


FORT STANTON
>From its beginning in 1855 until it became a hospital in 1896; this post was much American history in the making. Abandoned from the Civil War, the fort was burned down by Confederate soldiers. Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson brought his volunteers there in l862 and put them to work rebuilding the fort. Billy the Kid stayed overnight in the fort guardhouse one of the few jails that held him. During the 1890's the post kept watch on Mescalero and Jicarillo Apaches. The old barracks now serve as headquarters for Fort Stanton Tuberculosis Hospital, and the original officers' homes are still in use. From Roswell go west on US 380 for 66 miles, turn south on State 214; drive five miles to Fort Stanton

FORT SUMNER
Established in 1862, Fort Sumner was the result of a noble idea. It was to be a "Chaplain posts" where Indian children could be educated. It was a miserable experiment, both for the Army and for the Indians. When floods, disease, pests, and crop failures caused near starvation, the Indians returned to their native haunts. Abandoned buildings and surrounding lands were auctioned to a private developer who turned the officers' quarters into a mansion. Billy the Kid was killed there on July 17, 1881. A Billy the Kid Museum, located sever miles southeast of the town of Fort Sumner, has a collection of fort and area relics. The town is at the junction of US 60 and US 84 in the eastern part of the state


FORT UNION
Started in 1851, Fort Union went up piecemeal with troop labor during a government economy drive. As it becomes a major supply depot for the Southwest, its men were continually busy on the front as well as with construction tasks. They performed escort duty on the Santa Fe Trail and were in the field regularly scouting, patrolling and skirmishing with local Indians until 1874. The soldiers of Fort Union also played a significant role in repelling the Confederate invasion of New Mexico in 1862. The sprawling post combined three sub-installations, the Post, The Quartermaster Depot, and the Ordnance Depot. The Army remained there until 1889. The National Park Service now administers Fort Union. Take US 85 north from Las Vegas, New Mexico; turn onto State 477 to the fort.


FORT WINGATE
Situated originally where a treaty was signed with the Navajos in 1846, this post was established in 1860 to stop the plundering by both Mexican and Indian desperadoes At first it was a tent compound called Fort Fauntleroy. Companies of the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers were stationed there. Later it was renamed Fort Lyon, then Fort Wingate. The post was enlarged during the Civil War, and it supported Colonel Christopher 'Kit Carsonís Navajo campaign in 1863 The post was relocated almost 40 Mlles to the northwest in 1868, to comply with another Indian treaty, where it exercised surveillance over Indian affairs until the 20th century. From Gallup, take Interstate 40 east 12 miles; turn south and follow Fort Wingate turnoff for three miles to the site of the Second Fort Wingate (formerly Fort Fauntleroy and Lyon) which is now an Indian school. To visit the original posts, take Interstate 40 east 48 miles to Grants, turn south on State 53 to San Rafael. The old Fort Wingate site is a mile west and slightly south of the village.

NEBRASKA



FORT HARTSUFF
The actual construction of this post played an important role in the survival of area settlers when crops were destroyed by the plague of grasshoppers in 1874. Men were glad to work for the government as carpenters, masons, and haulers. By the time the post was completed, its military need disappeared, and it was sold in 1881. In 1960, the fort became state property. Many buildings are still in good condition, although overgrown with trees and brush. From Ord, take State 11 north seven miles to Elyria. A winding dirt road leads from Elyria north to the fort, about three miles


FOBT KEARMY
In 1846, Colonel Stephen Kearny originally established Fort Kearny in the area now occupied by Nebraska City. In 1848, it as moved to what is now Fort Kearny State Historical Park in order to provide better protection to travelers on the Oregon Trail. The installation was discontinued in 187l, and the building demolished. In 1959, the site was reclaimed as a state park; it features blacksmith-carpenter shop, stockade, parade ground, and interpretive center. Fort Kearny, drive south on State 44 for four miles, turn left and go about four miles to the park.


FORT OMAHA
General George Crook moved his headquarters from Omaha City to Fort Omaha when the post was completed in 1868. Indian affairs occupied much of the Armyís time there during the last half of the 19th century. From 1908 to 1918, the fort was a military center for balloon and dirigible activities. Seven buildings of the fortís early era remain on the installation now shared by Army and Navy Reserve units. The main entrance is located in Omaha on 30th Street and Fort Street.


FORT ROBINSON
Established in 1874, troops stationed at this fort played a key role during the uprising of the Powder River Sioux. Since then, it has been a Cavalry remount station, a prisoner-of-war and a training center for K-9 Corps war dogs. In 1947, the US Army gave Fort Robinson to state and federal agencies. Today, its former officers' quarter's house visitors, and the old post headquarters structure is a colorful museum depicting manís occupation of the western plains. Fort Robinson is four files west of Crawford on US 20.

NORTH DAKOTA



FORT ABERCROMBIE
This site was established as a fort in 1857, although it was not until 1862 that its defenses were tested. Alerted to increasing Indian activity by reconnaissance parties, the nearby settlers rushed to the Armyís protective stockade just in time. The Sioux, on foot and on horseback, besieged Fort Abercrombie for almost six weeks. The Indians alternated occasional sniping fire with all-out attacks on all four sides. Army rifles, shotguns, and howitzers held the fort. From Fargo, drive south on US 81 about 45 files to the town of Abercrombie; turn east on the town's main street and drive one mile to the fort.


FORT ABRAHAM LINCOLN
In 1872, this post was harassed by Indians even before it was finished. Originally named Fort McKeen, it was redesignated Fort Abraham Lincoln in 1872. Colonel George A. Custer commanded the post from 1873 to 1876 when he, also commanding the 7th Cavalry, marched off to the ill-fated battle of Little Bighorn. The post was rendered obsolete in 1891 when the railroad pushed through. Near the installation are a museum and a reconstructed camp of the Mandan Indians (Slant Village), containing large circular earth lodges and ceremonial Structures. From Mandon, go south on State 6 five Miles to the fort.


FORT BUFORD
Strategically established in 1866 to quell Indian disturbances and supervise peaceful reservation settlement, Fort Buford was for years under constant attack. Following Colonel George A Custer's defeat, Army campaigns from Fort Buford against the Sioux and Cheyenne were particularly aggressive. The famous Sioux warrior, Sitting Bull, and his people were finally persuaded to surrender at Fort Buford in 1881. These tumultuous events are now captured through Memorabilia in the museum, once the Fort Buford officers' quarters. From Williston, take US 2 west seven miles, turn south to Trenton, and continue 10 miles southwest to Fort Buford.


FORT MANDAN
The Lewis and Clark Expedition arrived at this location in October of 1804 and built formidable shelters against the coming winter. They named the carp Fort Mandan, and their relation with the local Mandan Indians and French fur trappers were friendly. In April 1805, the famous party left the post and continued through the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. Just North of Washburn, drive west three files on US 83 to the site


FORT TOTTEM
Established in 1867 to protect westward stagecoach and mail routes, Fort Totten became a haven for displaced neighboring Indians. Despite the hardships of subzero temperatures, food shortages, and many diseases, the installation grew within a few years into a military community properly squared sound its parade ground, which is still well preserved today. In 1890, the post became an Indian reservation boarding school. From Devils Lake, take State 57 southwest approximately 15 miles to the fort.

FORT UNION
This trading post of the American Fur company functioned between l828 and 1867 as a center for a cluster of carps throughout the region, and to dominated the economy of the northern Plains until the Arty dismantled it more than a century ago, and is being rebuilt as a tribute to the fur traders who helped shape the region. Fort Union is the place where the story of the Upper Missouri fur trade is told. It is on a 430-acre Fort Union National Historic Site. John Jacob Astor's powerful American Fur Company built Fort Union in 1828 near the confluence of the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers. Jean Pierre DeSmet, an early missionary, once described it as the "vastness and finest of the forts the American Fur Company has on the Missouri." To serve Indian trappers, it furnished ammunition; vegetables dried meat, flour, and blacksmith service, all of which were exchanged for valuable buffalo robes. Assiniboin, Cree, Crow, Blackfeet and Sioux Indians peacefully coexisted with Fort Union's traders for a generation before the great Indian Wars broke out in the West. Steamboats were welcomed by thunderous cannon salutes as they brought in fresh supplies and departed laden with furs. The site is about one mile west of Fort Buford on the Montana border.



KANSAS



FORT DODGE
Located on the north bank of the Arkansas River, this fort was lint on the Santa Fe Trail. General G. M. Dodge pitched a camp there as early as 1864, but the fort was not formally established for another year. It served as base of operation against hostile Indians in the 1860's and 1870's. Troops were withdrawn in 1885. The post now serves as the Kansas State Soldiers Hone of Dodge City.


FORT HARKER
Volunteer troops established a fort on the north bank of the Smoky River near the crossing of the old Santa Fe stagecoach road in 1864. The blockhouse, the only remaining building retaining its historical character, is part of a museum of the Ellsworth County Historical Society at Ellsworth. The post is at the south end of State 111 at Kanopolis.


FORT HAYS
This post was founded in 1865 to protect employees of the Kansas Pacific railroad from Indian attacks. The original site was abandoned in 1867 following disastrous floods and the installation was moved 15 miles west of Big Creek. The US Army abandoned Fort Hays in 1889 when the Indian hostilities ended. It is now a Kansas State Historical Site and home of Fort Hays Kansas State College. From Interstate 70, two miles west of Hays, drive south on State 174 to the college


FORT LARNED
First called "Camp on Pawnee Fork" this post as established in 1859 to escort wagon trains on the Santa Fe Trail. It was the center of activity during the Indian Wars of 1868; beset many times by raiding parties. The fort guarded railroad construction workers until the railroad reached the upper Arkansas River Valley, ending the days of wagon trains. The installation is now a National Historical site, supervised by the National Park Service. It is located six miles west of Larned on Us 156; tours are offered. .

FORT LEAVENWORTH
Midway in the chain of American frontier forts, this site became the host important portal of the west. The tent camp of 1827 was just a beginning for a post that has continued as an active Army post for almost a century and a half. Fort Leavenworth was the base on many exploring parties, boasting huge corrals and supply yards for outfitting wagon trains. In 1839, Colonel Stephen Kearny led an expedition, composed of the largest mounted force of Regulars ever assembled up to that time to the Cherokee Nation. During the Civil War, Confederates twice threatened the post. Today, it is the location of the US Armyís Command and General Staff College, offering outstanding courses of Military instruction. A large Museum and historic tours recapture the old days. Fort Leavenworth is north of the town of Leavenworth on State 82.


FORT RILEY
Established in 1853, this post was first known as Camp Center because of its proximity to the geographical center of the US. It was renamed for General Bennett Riley, a hero of the Mexican War, six month later. The post's soldiers main concern was confining Indian hostilities, a mission they pursued until the end of the frontier. In 1866, Lieutenant Colonel General A Custer organized the 7th Cavalry at Fort Riley. As the US Army's Cavalry Center, troops from this post participated in nearly all-western campaigns. The 100,000-acre installation is now home of the 1st Infantry Division (Big Red One), Irwin Army Hospital, and Third ROTC Region. Located at Fort Riley are the US Cavalry Museum, Custer's Home, and the First Territorial Capitol. From Junction City, take State 18 to the fort. Dwight D Eisenhower Center (library, hone, and place of Meditation), located in Abilene, Kansas. This was Eisenhower's boyhood home. Abilene is about 40 miles west of Ft. Riley on I-70 in Dickinson County.


FORT SCOTT
Daniel Boone's son, Captain Nathan Boone, was in the 1837 party, which selected this site on which a post was established in 1842. During the Mexican War, with the constant necessity of protecting the Santa Fe Trail, Dragoons were stationed there until well into the 1850's. In pre-Civil War Kansas, this post was a hotbed of secessionists and (Nonslavery) "Free Staters." When the war started, General William S. Harney established his Department of the West headquarters there. Fort Scott has also been command post for the Army of the Frontier, the District of Kansas, and forces of Southeastern Kansas. Headquarters House today contains a historical museum and many other fort buildings also remain. From downtown Fort Scott, on US 69, go north to Wall Street; the post is off Wall Street on Carroll Plaza. The fort commemorates events of civil war period.

CALIFORNIA




ALCATRAZ ISLAND
Located in San Francisco Bay, Alcatraz was recognized as an important defensive position in 1849 when John C. Fremont, acting Governor of California acquired it. A few years later, gun emplacements were begun which, at the start of the Civil War, included a line of batteries, a massive brick guardhouse, and a three-story barracks to house 600 men. As the Civil War progressed, political prisoners were detained on the island. In 1868, it became a disciplinary barracks. In the 1930's the Federal Bureau of Prisons assumed control of the island fortress, which earned the nickname of "The Rock." In 1963, it was dropped from the Federal Prison System; it is now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation. Area tours leave by boat from Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco.


EL PRESIDIO DE SANTA BARBARA:
In the eighteenth century, the Spanish established four presidios, or forts, along California's coast to protect their holdings. The presidio built at Santa Barbara was founded in 1782. It served as the military and government headquarters for the lands between Los Angeles and San Luis Obispo until 1846. Two original building have been restored and five other reconstructed. El Presidio is located on Canon Perdido, between Anacapa and Sata Barbara streets, in downtown Santa Barbara.

CAMP RAYNOLDS (ANGEL ISLAND):
In 1775, the packet San Carlos anchored in the cove of this Island while her crew conducted the first survey of San Francisco Bay. Lieutenant Don Juan Manual Ayala, the boat's captain, named the island "Nuestra Senora de Los Angeles (Our lady of the Angels), which was later shortened to Angel Island. During the first half of the 19th century, Russian, French, and English merchantmen used the island to smuggle contraband past San Francisco customs officers at Yerba Buena. It has also been a Mexican rancho, US prison, dueling ground, US military post (1863), and quarantine and immigration station. The 740-acre island, San Francisco Bay's largest, has been a Civil War camp, and immigration station for Chinese immigrants, a major military embarkation center during World Wars I and II, and a Nike missile base. The island offers environmental campsites, biking and hiking trails, and beautiful views of the Bay Area. For park information, including ferry schedules call (415) 435-1915. Two thousand years ago, the island provided abundant fishing and hunting for Coastal Miwok Indians. It once was a haven for Spanish explorer Juan de Ayala and later served as a cattle ranch and U.S. Army posts. For decades, until the 1940's, the island served as an entrance station for Asian immigrants. In World War II, it was a jumping-off point for soldiers returning from the pacific campaigns and Japanese and German POWs were held here. The island was also home to a Nike missile base during the 1950's and 1960's. In 1900, it was renamed Fort McDowell. It was discontinued as a military post in l945. Today, the extensively renovated park has a variety of offerings. Relic military buildings from both World Wars, and the largest remaining collection of Civil Ware-era wooden structures in the US await exploration. The immigration Station Museum details the island's history when it was known as the "Ellis Island of the West." Angel Islands' scenery and history are now accessible to all visitors, thanks to a one-hour, open-air tram tour with audio narration. Angel Island is now a state park, which can be reached only by boat. Ferries leave from Fisherman's Wharf San Francisco, or from Tiburon.

CAMP YERBA BUENA ISLAND:
The first recommendation for garrisoning this island in San Francisco Bay was made in 1861 by the US Navy. Army Engineers agreed and included it in their 1862 plans, but construction was delayed until three years after the Civil War. A Company of Engineers opened a camp on the eastern side. It was turned over to the Navy in the 1870's. For the 1939 world's Fair, the bay was dredged and fills added to the shoals on the north shores, creating "Treasure Island" as a fair site. The island is now a naval headquarters and an anchorage for the Oakland Bay Bridge. It can be reached from either side of San Francisco Bay by taking the Yerba Buena exit off the Oakland Bay Bridge.


DRUM BARRACKS
Established in San Pedro in 1862, this post became headquarters of the US Army for Southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. It was a garrison, a depot and a terminal for camel pack trains operated by the Army until 1863. In 1873, Congress passed a bill returning the post to its original owner, Phineas T. Banning Mansion, part of the original post, is now a museum. Drum Barracks is located at 1053 Carey Street. Banning Park and the museum are at Broad and Eubank Avenues, which is just south of US 6 (Harbor Freeway) and Alternate 101, Wilmington.


FORT HUMBOLDT
Fort Humboldt was founded in l853 by Captain R. C. Buchanan and Campanies B and F, 4th US Infantry. Ulysses S. Grant as stationed here from 1853 to 1854. The installation was a central base in the Indian Wars of this region until 1865. The post was abandoned in 1867. Soldiers constructed a 14-building outpost in 1853 to protect the settlers who were making the Humboldt Bay region their home. Today, the partially reconstructed fort hosts displays on logging, early Native American life, and the tragic violence that occurred between gold miners and Native Americans from the early 1850s to 1866. The park is on Fort Ave, off Highland Ave., which intersects with US 101 on the South side of Eureka. Today it is Fort Humboldt State Park.

FORT MASON
In 1797, the Spanish built gun emplacements on a point just south of Presidio of San Francisco, calling them "Bateria San Jose". Although the US asserted ownership in 1850, it did not develop the site until 1863, when a 10-gun battery, manned by a company of Infantry, was assigned. It soon became a small community with a parade ground. Following the 1906 earthquake, it served as a refugee camp for quake and fire victims. In World War II, it functioned as a supply and transportation center through which 23 million tons of cargo and a million troops were deployed. Although the Army has retained a small segment, the installation is now a part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. It is located on Bay Street at Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco.


FORT ROSS
In the late 18th century, the Russian-American Fur Company purchased 1,000 acres of coastal land for three blankets, two axes, three hoes, and an assortment of beads. For 30 years the Russian Settlement of Fort Ross supported fur posts in Alaska while also serving as a base or operations for hunting sea otters. Captain John Sutter purchased the fort in 1841 for $30,000. This settlement marks Russia's southernmost permanent California outpost. 25 Russians and 80 Native Alaskans established it in 1812 as a trading post and marine mammal-hunting outpost. There is one surviving Russian building and reconstructed replicas of the stockade, Russian-Orthodox chapel and other buildings. A visitor center houses exhibits and displays on the rich cultural history of this unique location The 3,386-acre park is 12 miles north of Jenner on State Hwy 1. To get there, take State 20 west from Santa Rosa for 30 miles. Turn north onto State 1 at Jenner and drive 12 miles to Fort Ross State Historical Park.

FORT POINT
The first ship to enter San Francisco Bay, the San Carlos, dropped anchor off this point near the entrance to San Francisco Bay in August 1775. The point is the largest West Coast fortification. The sixth governor of California, Jose Joaquin de Arrillaga, had an adobe fortification built on the location in 1794. Following possession by the US Army Engineers they built Fort Point (renamed for a short time Fort Winfield Scott) in 1853. A partial replica of famous Fort Sumter, it is the only brick fort west of the Mississippi. Its seawall has stood undamaged for 100 years. Originally within the Presidio of San Francisco compound, the fort is now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Tours of Fort Point are conducted by the National Park Service. On the Presidio, follow Lincoln Boulevard to Long Avenue, which leads to the point.


FORT ROSECRANS
Built by the US Army in 1898, Coast Artillery batteries there protected San Diego Bay against possible naval attack until the end of World War II. The site was originally Fort Guijarros, an Old Spanish installation dating to 1800. Its stately two-story living quarters are still in use. Today, Fort Rosecrans is an active US Navy post. It is at the end of Chatsworth Boulevard, an extension of Barrett Avenue, San Diego, off Interstate S.


FORT STOCKTON
Originally a Spanish earthwork presidio (fortified camp), the Americans took this location from the Mexicans in 1846. They filled 300 one-gallon casks with sand and formed a rectangular wall, which is still faintly visible. They then dragged cannons from old Fort Guijarros, one of which, 'El Jupiter", still remains. The Americans renamed the hill Fort Stockton, and this fort, with two other small garrisons around San Diego, completed the city's defenses until Fort Rosecrans materialized. Fort Stockton is located in Presidio Park, Old Town, San Diego.


FORT TEJON:
This post was established in 1854 to suppress stock rustling and protect the San Joaquin Valley Indians. It was an important military, social, and political center. Until 1861 when it was abandoned, the post was a busy overland mail station. Although the area had been visited as early as 1772 by a Spanish expedition, the first permanent settlement didn't occur until the U.S. Army First Dragoons established a camp here in 1854. The fort was designed to protect Native Americans living on the Sebastian Indian Reservation. The restored buildings can be reached via the Fort Tejon exit off I-5, seventy miles northwest of Los Angeles, near the top of Grapevine Canyon. The State of California maintains Fort Tejon Historic Park, with a museum. It is located on Frontage Road, west of US 99, near Lebec.

FORT YUMA
With the end of the Mexican War in 1848, the Territories of California and Arizona became part of the US. Within a year a ferry was established on the Colorado River for the emigrants taking the southern route to California. Fort Yuma was founded on the California side to protect the ferry crossing and offer assistance to the emigrant trains passing through. It was abandoned in 1883 and transferred to the Interior Department a year later. The fort now contains the Quechan Indian Museum housed in the old officers' mess. The fort is seven block east of US 80 on the California side of the Colorado River


FREMONT PEAK
On Gabilan Peak {renamed Fremont Peak), Captain John C Fremont built a fort in 1846, expecting stiff resistance from Mexican Californianos. After four days, when the battle did not materialize, Fremont broke camp and departed for Oregon. The State of California now maintains Fremont State Park, south of San Juan Bautista.


PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY
A presidio (fortified camp) was established near Monterey Bay by the Spanish in 1770. On September 22, 1822, when Mexico became independent of Spain, its new flag was raised over the small but colorful community. In 1846, Commodore John D. Sloat anchored three US ships in Monterey Bay and, with a naval party, took possession of the town which as then the capital of California. Construction of new fortifications by the US Army began the next year. The post is now a unit of the Defense Language Institute, which teaches 24 foreign languages to military personnel. A museum is also maintained at the Presidio, which is located on State 1, Monterey.


PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO
Formally established September 17, 1776; the Presidio of San Francisco has been a military headquarters for three governments--Spain, Mexico, and the US. It contains many beautiful Spanish style buildings constructed during the Civil War and Spanish-America War periods. One of the walls of the officers' club, near the site of the original camp, is the oldest structure in San Francisco. Once a barren hill overlooking the Golden Gate, increasing attention was given to the improvement and beautification of Presidio of San Francisco in the 1880's through a well-executed plan of reforesting. As a result of this plan and continued efforts through the years, the Presidio of San Francisco is now considered one of the beauty spots of the city. The post was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1963. A major command post throughout the history of America, the Presidio of San Francisco now houses Headquarters, Sixth US Army; Letterman Army Medical Center, Letterman Army Institute of Research, and several other Army agencies in 1990. A museum is located at Lincoln Boulevard and Funston Avenue, and tours are available. The main entrance is on Lombard Street, San Francisco.


PRESIDIO OF SONOMA:
General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, commander of the northern Mexico frontier and founder of the town of Sonoma erected Barracks there. In June 1846, Americans, under the banner of California's "Bear Flag", staged a revolt. Reinforced a few weeks later by more troops under Commodore John D. Sloat, the force took possession of California for the US. A military post as established in 1852 and garrisoned for six years. In 1823, Sonoma was the last mission built in California. As Mexican Commander of San Francisco's presidio, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo was sent to secularize the Sonoma mission settlement, and he subsequently managed it operations. American settlers imprisoned Vallejo in 1846 during the "Bear Flag Revolt." The settlers proclaimed the "Republic of California" and created their own emblem - the Bear Flag. A few weeks later, the U.S. took over. More than a dozen mission-period buildings surround Sonoma's downtown central plaza. Vallego's second Sonoma home, and American style Victorian, is 3/4 mile west from the plaza. Sonoma State Historical Park contains the old barracks and is located at the Plaza, Sonoma.

SUTTER'S FORT:
John A Sutter arrived in California in 1839 and promptly built fortifications to protect his Mexican land grant. Following the United States' occupation of California, the Stars and Stripes first flew over the outpost on July 11, 1846, when troops were garrisoned there. After gold was discovered at his mill, Sutter lost possession of the fort. By 1860, its outer walls and rooms lay in ruin; The State of California acquired the site in 1890 and began restoration. Of the original buildings, the two-story central structure, made of adobe and oak, remains preserved. John Sutter, a Swiss immigrant, received a 28,000-acre Mexican land grant in the Sacramento Valley in 1841. Sutter's Fort became the destination for early immigrants coming to California, including the Donner Party, which lost many lives in a mountain blizzard. The fort, at 27th and L streets in Sacramento, has been restored to its 1846 appearance and is open daily, except for some major holidays. Of special interest is the new Summer Interpretive Program, which runs daily from Memorial Day through Labor Day weekend. It has an excellent museum. The fort is on L Street, between 27th and 28th, Sacramento, California

PRESIDIO OF SAN DIEGO:
Founded in 1769 as Spain's first colony in California, Presidio of San Diego began with little more than a parapet of earth and brush protecting two cannons overlooking the harbor. Americans under Captain John C. Fremont besieged it in 1846 and won it from its Mexican defenders. Father Junipero Serra's mission, founded in 1769 and located nearby, also was a US Garrison until 1858. Old Town San Diego became California's first Spanish settlement when a mission and fort was established in 1769. Old Town is a restored collection of early buildings, including La Casa de Estudillo, built in 1827. The complex also features shops, restaurants, and a museum. The park is located on San Diego Ave. and Twiggs St. in San Diego. Presidio Park is in Old Town San Diego. There was a battle at Escondido California. This 11-acre park's history dates back to December 6, 1846, when U.S. Army General Stephen W. Kearney was awakened by Kit Carson and informed of the approaching rebel Californios led by General Andres Pico. The Mexican-American War was in full swing. Pico had just retaken Los Angeles, and now they were threatening the American in San Diego. Both generals claimed victory in the bloody battle that ensured Docents and volunteers reenact the historic battle each December. The park is located at 15808 San Pasqual Valley Road in Escondido.

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